Androgenetic Alopecia, AGA
Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA), also called male or female pattern baldness, is the most common hair loss affecting both men and women, with a higher incidence in men. While more than half of adult males suffer from AGA, this rate increases to 80% in men at age 50 and above. Male AGA is characterized by receding hairline and baldness on the top and front of the head. Female AGA is usually manifested as hair thinning on the top and crown of the head. As a degenerative disorder with etiology largely unknown, genetic, psychological and mental, endocrinological and metabolic factors may play a role. The pathogenesis underlying AGA has been linked to hyperactivation of androgen receptors on hair follicle cells, rendering resting hair follicles unable to re-enter growth phase and undergoing miniaturization.
Atopic Dermatitis, AD
Atopic Dermatitis (AD), or atopic eczema, is an allergy related, chronic and itchy inflammatory skin disease affecting both men and women equally. Worldwide, over 15% of children and 1-3% adults are affected by AD. The disease typically undergoes three stages: infantile, childhood and adulthood. Typical acute and subacute lesions include exudative erythema, papules, and vesicles usually on the face, trunk and the flexor aspects of extremities, while chronic lesions tend to be hyperplastic plaques and lichenification. Severe pruritus and skin dryness are two most common symptoms in both acute and chronic AD. The pathogenesis of AD is a Th2 cell driven immune response associated with infection and impaired skin barrier function.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune related, chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The incidence rate of psoriasis worldwide is 2-4% with no gender difference. It is most commonly seen in young and middle-aged adults with two peaks of onset, the first at age 20-30 years and the second at 50-60 years, particularly the early onset. The most common clinical type of psoriasis, plaque psoriasis, is characterized by multiple scaly and erythematous plaques usually on the scalp, trunk, the extensor aspects of extremities. There are several other clinical types and variants including guttate psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inverse psoriasis, etc. While the disease cause remains unclear, psoriasis has shown a genetic predisposition and is elicited by a Th17 cell driven autoimmunity.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks its own tissues, causing widespread inflammation and tissue damage in the affected organs. It can affect the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood vessels. People with SLE may experience a variety of symptoms that include fatigue, skin rashes, fevers, and pain or swelling in the joints. There is no cure for SLE. SLE treatment consists primarily of immunosuppressive drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone) that inhibit activity of the immune system. Belimumab was approved by the FDA in 2011, the first new drug for SLE in more than 50 years.